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Notes and Highlights of Kentucky Governor Andy Beshear’s Live Update September 29, 2020

Notes and Highlights of Kentucky Governor Andy Beshear’s Live Update September 29, 2020
Notes by mr_tyler_durden and Daily Update Team
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Which Director had the best run in the 90s?

Best run in terms of anything
Quentin Tarantino: Pulp Fiction, Jackie Brown, and Reservoir Dogs.
Martin Scorsese: Goodfellas, Casino, Kundun, Cape Fear, The Age of Innocence, and Bringing Out the Dead.
Robert Altman: The Player, Short Cuts, Prêt-à-Porter, Kansas City, The Gingerbread Man, Cookie's Fortune, and Vincent & Theo.
Robert Redford: Quiz Show, The Horse Whisperer, and A River Runs Through It.
The Coen Brothers: Fargo, Miller's Crossing, The Big Lebowski, Barton Fink, and The Hudsucker Proxy.
Wong Kar Wai: Chungking Express, Days of Being Wild, Ashes of Time, Fallen Angels, and Happy Together.
Paul Thomas Anderson: Hard Eight, Boogie Nights, and Magnolia.
David Fincher: Alien 3, Se7en, Fight Club, and The Game.
Francis Ford Coppola: The Godfather 3, The Rainmaker, Jack, and Bram Stoker's Dracula.
Steven Spielberg: Hook, Jurassic Park, The Lost World, Amistad, Schindler's List, and Saving Private Ryan.
Claire Dennis: Beau Travail, No Fear, No Die, I Can't Sleep, and Nénette and Boni.
Richard Linklater: Before Sunrise, Slacker, Dazed and Confused, The Newton Boys, and SubUrbia.
Abbas Kiarostami: Close Up, Taste of Cherry, The Wind Will Carry Us, Life, and Nothing More..., and Through the Olive Trees.
Harold Ramis: Groundhog Day, Analyze This, Stuart Saves His Family, and Multiplicity.
Michael Mann: Heat, The Last of the Mohicans, and The Insider.
Wes Anderson: Bottle Rocket and Rushmore.
Todd Haynes: Safe, Velvet Goldmine, and Poison.
The Wachowskis: The Matrix and Bound.
Emir Kusturica: Underground, Arizona Dream, and Black Cat, White Cat.
Krzysztof Kieślowski: Three Colours Trilogy and Double Life of Veronique
Steven Soderbergh: Out of Sight, Gray's Anatomy, Schizopolis, The Limey, Kafka, King of the Hill, and The Underneath.
Jonathan Demme: Philadelphia, The Silence of the Lambs, and Beloved.
Robert Zemeckis: Forrest Gump, Death Becomes Her, Contact, and Back to the Future Part III.
Zhang Yimou: To Live, Raise the Red Lantern, Not One Less, The Story of Qiu Ju, Ju Dou, Keep Cool, Shanghai Triad, The Road Home, and Zhang Yimou.
Terence Davies: The Long Day Closes and The Neon Bible.
Clint Eastwood: Unforgiven, The Bridges of Madison County, True Crime, Absolute Power, The Rookie, White Hunter Black Heart, In the Line of Fire, and A Perfect World.
Lars Von Trier: Breaking the Waves, Europa, and The Idiots.
Hirokazu Kore-eda: After Life, However..., Lessons from a Calf, August without Him, and Maborosi.
Gus Van Sant: My Own Private Idaho, To Die For, Good Will Hunting, Psycho, and Even Cowgirls Get the Blues.
David Lynch: Lost Highway, The Straight Story, Wild at Heart, and Twin Peaks: Fire Walk with Me.
Amy Heckerling: Clueless and Look Who's Talking Too.
Kathryn Bigelow: Point Blank, Strange Days, and Blue Steel.
Thomas Vinterberg: Festen, Last Round, The Boy Who Walked Backwards, and The Biggest Heroes.
Julie Dash: Daughters of the Dust, Funny Valentines, and Praise House.
Pedro Almodóvar: All About my Mother, Tie Me Up! Tie Me Down!, Live Flesh, High Heels, Kika, and The Flower of My Secret.
Jan De Bont: Speed 1 & 2, Twister, and The Haunting.
Oliver Stone: JFK, Nixon, Heaven & Earth, Natural Born Killers, The Doors, Any Given Sunday, and U Turn.
Rob Reiner: Misery, A Few Good Men, The American President, Ghosts of Mississippi, and The Story of Us.
Paul Verhoeven: Basic Instinct, Showgirls, Total Recall, and Starship Troopers.
Danny Boyle: Trainspotting, Shallow Grave, and A Life Less Ordinary.
Tim Burton: Edward Scissorhands, Ed Wood, The Nightmare Before Christmas, Sleepy Hollow, Batman Returns, and Mars Attacks!.
Ang Lee: Pushing Hands, Sense and Sensibility, The Ice Storm, Eat Drink Man Woman, The Wedding Banquet, and Ride with the Devil.
Jane Campion: The Piano, An Angel at My Table, The Portrait of a Lady, and Holy Smoke!.
Frank Darabont: The Shawshank Redemption and The Green Mile.
Lasse Hallström: What's Eating Gilbert Grape, Once Around, The Cider House Rules, and Something to Talk About.
Jim Jarmusch: Dead Man, Ghost Dog: The Way of the Samurai, Night on Earth, and Year of the Horse.
M. Night Shyamalan: The Sixth Sense, Praying with Anger, and Wide Awake.
Luc Besson: La Femme Nikita, Atlantis, Léon: The Professional, The Fifth Element, and The Messenger: The Story of Joan of Arc.
Alan Parker: The Commitments, Evita, Come See the Paradise, Angela's Ashes, and The Road to Wellville.
Terry Gilliam: The Fisher King, Fear and Loathing in Las Vegas, and 12 Monkeys.
Mike Leigh: Naked, Secrets and Lies, Topsy-Turvy, Life Is Sweet, and Career Girls.
Peter Jackson: Braindead, Heavenly Creatures, Forgotten Silver, and The Frighteners.
Martin Brest: Scent of a Woman, Meet Joe Black, and Josh and S.A.M.
Woody Allen: Everyone Says I Love You, Alice, Shadows and Fog, Husbands and Wives, Manhattan Murder Mystery, Mighty Aphrodite, Celebrity, Sweet and Lowdown, and Deconstructing Harry.
Ridley Scott: Thelma & Louise, G.I. Jane, White Squall, and 1492: Conquest of Paradise.
Bryan Singer: Apt Pupil, The Usual Suspects, and Public Access.
Kenneth Branagh: Othello, Much Ado About Nothing, Hamlet, Mary Shelley's Frankenstein, In the Bleak Midwinter, Dead Again, and Peter's Friends.
Theodoros Angelopoulos: Eternity and a Day, Ulysses' Gaze, and The Suspended Step of the Stork.
Spike Lee: Crooklyn, Malcolm X, Girl 6, Summer of Sam, Get on the Bus, Clockers, He Got Game, Mo' Better Blues, and Jungle Fever.
Radu Mihaileanu: Trahir, Bonjour Antoine, and Train of Life.
Richard Attenborough: Grey Owl, In Love and War, Chaplin, and Shadowlands.
Tony Scott: The Last Boy Scout, True Romance, Crimson Tide, The Fan, Enemy of the State, Days of Thunder, and Revenge.
Eric Rohmer: L'Arbre, le maire et la médiathèque and Les Rendez-vous de Paris.
Jacques Rivette: Up, Down, Fragile, Secret Defense, La Belle Noiseuse, and Joan the Maid.
Edward Yang: A Brighter Summer Day, A Confucian Confusion, and Mahjong.
Michael Haneke: Benny's Video, Funny Games, and 71 Fragments of a Chronology of Chance.
Farrelly brothers: Kingpin, Dumb and Dumber, and There's Something About Mary.
David Cronenberg : Naked Lunch, eXistenZ, Crash, and M. Butterfly.
Takeshi Kitano: Sonatine, Fireworks, Kikujiro and Kid's Return
Alex Cox: El Patrullero, Three Businessmen, The Winner, and Death and the Compass.
Atom Egoyan: Calendar, Exotica, The Sweet Hereafter, Felicia's Journey, and The Adjuster.
Manoel de Oliveira: The Divine Comedy, The Letter, Anxiety, Voyage to the Beginning of the World, Party, A Caixa, Abraham's Valley, The Convent, No, or the Vain Glory of Command, Day of Despair, and The Letter.
Dardenne brothers: Rosetta, Je pense à vous, and La Promesse
Jacques Rivette: La Belle Noiseuse, Top Secret, Up, Down, Fragile, and Joan the Maid.
Kiyoshi Kurosawa: Cure, Charisma, The Guard from Underground, Barren Illusions, and License to Live.
Jafar Panahi: The White Balloon and The Mirror.
Tsai Ming-liang: The River, Vive L'Amour, The Hole, and Rebels of the Neon God.
Hou Hsiao-hsien: The Puppetmaster, Flowers of Shanghai, Good Men, Good Women, and Goodbye South, Goodbye.
Leos Carax: Les Amants du Pont-Neuf, Sans Titre, and Pola X.
John Woo: Hard Boiled, Bullet in the Head, Hard Target, Once a Thief, Face/Off, and Broken Arrow.
Olivier Assayas: Cold Water, A New Life, Irma Vep, Tous les garçons et les filles de leur âge..., Paris Awakens, Cinéma, de notre temps, Alice and Martin, Man Yuk: A Portrait of Maggie Cheung, Late August, Early September, and Filha da Mãe.
Roman Polanski: Bitter Moon, Death and the Maiden, and The Ninth Gate.
Brian De Palma: Carlito’s Way, The Bonfire of the Vanities, Raising Cain, Snake Eyes, and Mission: Impossible.
Werner Herzog: Lessons of Darkness, My Best Fiend, Little Dieter Needs to Fly, and Scream of Stone.
Cameron Crowe: Singles and Jerry Maguire.
Alexander Sokurov: The Stone, Whispering Pages, Mother and Son, Moloch, and The Second Circle.
Mohsen Makhmalbaf: Hello Cinema, Gabbeh, The Silence, The School the Wind Blew Away, Tales of Kish, A Moment of Innocence, Time of Love, Images from the Qajar Period, The Nights of Zayande-rood, Once Upon a Time, Cinema, Actor, and Stone and Glass
Hayao Miyazaki: Princess Mononoke, Porco Rosso, and On Your Mark.
Jean Luc Godard: Nouvelle Vague, JLG/JLG – Self-Portrait in December, New Wave, Hélas pour moi, For Ever Mozart, Germany Year 90 Nine Zero, Les Enfants jouent à la Russie, and Histoire(s) du Cinéma.
Alexander Payne: Election and Citizen Ruth.
James Foley: Glengarry Glen Ross, The Chamber, Two Bits, After Dark, My Sweet, The Corruptor, and Fear.
Whit Stillman: The Last Days of Disco, Metropolitan, and Barcelona.
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Which Director had the best run in the 90s?

Best run in terms of anything
Quentin Tarantino: Pulp Fiction, Jackie Brown, and Reservoir Dogs.
Martin Scorsese: Goodfellas, Casino, Kundun, Cape Fear, The Age of Innocence, and Bringing Out the Dead.
Robert Altman: The Player, Short Cuts, Prêt-à-Porter, Kansas City, The Gingerbread Man, Cookie's Fortune, and Vincent & Theo.
Robert Redford: Quiz Show, The Horse Whisperer, and A River Runs Through It.
The Coen Brothers: Fargo, Miller's Crossing, The Big Lebowski, Barton Fink, and The Hudsucker Proxy.
Wong Kar Wai: Chungking Express, Days of Being Wild, Ashes of Time, Fallen Angels, and Happy Together.
Paul Thomas Anderson: Hard Eight, Boogie Nights, and Magnolia.
David Fincher: Alien 3, Se7en, Fight Club, and The Game.
Francis Ford Coppola: The Godfather 3, The Rainmaker, Jack, and Bram Stoker's Dracula.
Steven Spielberg: Hook, Jurassic Park, The Lost World, Amistad, Schindler's List, and Saving Private Ryan.
Claire Dennis: Beau Travail, No Fear, No Die, I Can't Sleep, and Nénette and Boni.
Richard Linklater: Before Sunrise, Slacker, Dazed and Confused, The Newton Boys, and SubUrbia.
Abbas Kiarostami: Close Up, Taste of Cherry, The Wind Will Carry Us, Life, and Nothing More..., and Through the Olive Trees.
Harold Ramis: Groundhog Day, Analyze This, Stuart Saves His Family, and Multiplicity.
Michael Mann: Heat, The Last of the Mohicans, and The Insider.
Wes Anderson: Bottle Rocket and Rushmore.
Todd Haynes: Safe, Velvet Goldmine, and Poison.
The Wachowskis: The Matrix and Bound.
Emir Kusturica: Underground, Arizona Dream, and Black Cat, White Cat.
Krzysztof Kieślowski: Three Colours Trilogy and Double Life of Veronique
Steven Soderbergh: Out of Sight, Gray's Anatomy, Schizopolis, The Limey, Kafka, King of the Hill, and The Underneath.
Jonathan Demme: Philadelphia, The Silence of the Lambs, and Beloved.
Robert Zemeckis: Forrest Gump, Death Becomes Her, Contact, and Back to the Future Part III.
Zhang Yimou: To Live, Raise the Red Lantern, Not One Less, The Story of Qiu Ju, Ju Dou, Keep Cool, Shanghai Triad, The Road Home, and Zhang Yimou.
Terence Davies: The Long Day Closes and The Neon Bible.
Clint Eastwood: Unforgiven, The Bridges of Madison County, True Crime, Absolute Power, The Rookie, White Hunter Black Heart, In the Line of Fire, and A Perfect World.
Lars Von Trier: Breaking the Waves, Europa, and The Idiots.
Hirokazu Kore-eda: After Life, However..., Lessons from a Calf, August without Him, and Maborosi.
Gus Van Sant: My Own Private Idaho, To Die For, Good Will Hunting, Psycho, and Even Cowgirls Get the Blues.
David Lynch: Lost Highway, The Straight Story, Wild at Heart, and Twin Peaks: Fire Walk with Me.
Amy Heckerling: Clueless and Look Who's Talking Too.
Kathryn Bigelow: Point Blank, Strange Days, and Blue Steel.
Thomas Vinterberg: Festen, Last Round, The Boy Who Walked Backwards, and The Biggest Heroes.
Julie Dash: Daughters of the Dust, Funny Valentines, and Praise House.
Pedro Almodóvar: All About my Mother, Tie Me Up! Tie Me Down!, Live Flesh, High Heels, Kika, and The Flower of My Secret.
Jan De Bont: Speed 1 & 2, Twister, and The Haunting.
Oliver Stone: JFK, Nixon, Heaven & Earth, Natural Born Killers, The Doors, Any Given Sunday, and U Turn.
Rob Reiner: Misery, A Few Good Men, The American President, Ghosts of Mississippi, and The Story of Us.
Paul Verhoeven: Basic Instinct, Showgirls, Total Recall, and Starship Troopers.
Danny Boyle: Trainspotting, Shallow Grave, and A Life Less Ordinary.
Tim Burton: Edward Scissorhands, Ed Wood, The Nightmare Before Christmas, Sleepy Hollow, Batman Returns, and Mars Attacks!.
Ang Lee: Pushing Hands, Sense and Sensibility, The Ice Storm, Eat Drink Man Woman, The Wedding Banquet, and Ride with the Devil.
Jane Campion: The Piano, An Angel at My Table, The Portrait of a Lady, and Holy Smoke!.
Frank Darabont: The Shawshank Redemption and The Green Mile.
Lasse Hallström: What's Eating Gilbert Grape, Once Around, The Cider House Rules, and Something to Talk About.
Jim Jarmusch: Dead Man, Ghost Dog: The Way of the Samurai, Night on Earth, and Year of the Horse.
M. Night Shyamalan: The Sixth Sense, Praying with Anger, and Wide Awake.
Luc Besson: La Femme Nikita, Atlantis, Léon: The Professional, The Fifth Element, and The Messenger: The Story of Joan of Arc.
Alan Parker: The Commitments, Evita, Come See the Paradise, Angela's Ashes, and The Road to Wellville.
Terry Gilliam: The Fisher King, Fear and Loathing in Las Vegas, and 12 Monkeys.
Mike Leigh: Naked, Secrets and Lies, Topsy-Turvy, Life Is Sweet, and Career Girls.
Peter Jackson: Braindead, Heavenly Creatures, Forgotten Silver, and The Frighteners.
Martin Brest: Scent of a Woman, Meet Joe Black, and Josh and S.A.M.
Woody Allen: Everyone Says I Love You, Alice, Shadows and Fog, Husbands and Wives, Manhattan Murder Mystery, Mighty Aphrodite, Celebrity, Sweet and Lowdown, and Deconstructing Harry.
Ridley Scott: Thelma & Louise, G.I. Jane, White Squall, and 1492: Conquest of Paradise.
Bryan Singer: Apt Pupil, The Usual Suspects, and Public Access.
Kenneth Branagh: Othello, Much Ado About Nothing, Hamlet, Mary Shelley's Frankenstein, In the Bleak Midwinter, Dead Again, and Peter's Friends.
Theodoros Angelopoulos: Eternity and a Day, Ulysses' Gaze, and The Suspended Step of the Stork.
Spike Lee: Crooklyn, Malcolm X, Girl 6, Summer of Sam, Get on the Bus, Clockers, He Got Game, Mo' Better Blues, and Jungle Fever.
Radu Mihaileanu: Trahir, Bonjour Antoine, and Train of Life.
Richard Attenborough: Grey Owl, In Love and War, Chaplin, and Shadowlands.
Tony Scott: The Last Boy Scout, True Romance, Crimson Tide, The Fan, Enemy of the State, Days of Thunder, and Revenge.
Eric Rohmer: L'Arbre, le maire et la médiathèque and Les Rendez-vous de Paris.
Jacques Rivette: Up, Down, Fragile, Secret Defense, La Belle Noiseuse, and Joan the Maid.
Edward Yang: A Brighter Summer Day, A Confucian Confusion, and Mahjong.
Michael Haneke: Benny's Video, Funny Games, and 71 Fragments of a Chronology of Chance.
Farrelly brothers: Kingpin, Dumb and Dumber, and There's Something About Mary.
David Cronenberg : Naked Lunch, eXistenZ, Crash, and M. Butterfly.
Takeshi Kitano: Sonatine, Fireworks, Kikujiro and Kid'sReturn
Alex Cox: El Patrullero, Three Businessmen, The Winner, and Death and the Compass.
Atom Egoyan: Calendar, Exotica, The Sweet Hereafter, Felicia's Journey, and The Adjuster.
Manoel de Oliveira: The Divine Comedy, The Letter, Anxiety, Voyage to the Beginning of the World, Party, A Caixa, Abraham's Valley, The Convent, No, or the Vain Glory of Command, Day of Despair, and The Letter.
Dardenne brothers: Rosetta, Je pense à vous, and La Promesse
Jacques Rivette: La Belle Noiseuse, Top Secret, Up, Down, Fragile, and Joan the Maid.
Kiyoshi Kurosawa: Cure, Charisma, The Guard from Underground, Barren Illusions, and License to Live.
Jafar Panahi: The White Balloon and The Mirror.
Tsai Ming-liang: The River, Vive L'Amour, The Hole, and Rebels of the Neon God.
Hou Hsiao-hsien: The Puppetmaster, Flowers of Shanghai, Good Men, Good Women, and Goodbye South, Goodbye.
Leos Carax: Les Amants du Pont-Neuf, Sans Titre, and Pola X.
John Woo: Hard Boiled, Bullet in the Head, Hard Target, Once a Thief, Face/Off, and Broken Arrow.
Olivier Assayas: Cold Water, A New Life, Irma Vep, Tous les garçons et les filles de leur âge..., Paris Awakens, Cinéma, de notre temps, Alice and Martin, Man Yuk: A Portrait of Maggie Cheung, Late August, Early September, and Filha da Mãe.
Roman Polanski: Bitter Moon, Death and the Maiden, and The Ninth Gate.
Brian De Palma: Carlito’s Way, The Bonfire of the Vanities, Raising Cain, Snake Eyes, and Mission: Impossible.
Werner Herzog: Lessons of Darkness, My Best Fiend, Little Dieter Needs to Fly, and Scream of Stone.
Cameron Crowe: Singles and Jerry Maguire.
Alexander Sokurov: The Stone, Whispering Pages, Mother and Son, Moloch, and The Second Circle.
Mohsen Makhmalbaf: Hello Cinema, Gabbeh, The Silence, The School the Wind Blew Away, Tales of Kish, A Moment of Innocence, Time of Love, Images from the Qajar Period, The Nights of Zayande-rood, Once Upon a Time, Cinema, Actor, and Stone and Glass
Hayao Miyazaki: Princess Mononoke, Porco Rosso, and On Your Mark.
Jean Luc Godard: Nouvelle Vague, JLG/JLG – Self-Portrait in December, New Wave, Hélas pour moi, For Ever Mozart, Germany Year 90 Nine Zero, Les Enfants jouent à la Russie, and Histoire(s) du Cinéma.
Alexander Payne: Election and Citizen Ruth.
James Foley: Glengarry Glen Ross, The Chamber, The Corruptor, Two Bits, After Dark, My Sweet, and Fear.
James Mangold: Heavy, Cop Land, and Girl, Interrupted.
Whit Stillman: The Last Days of Disco, Metropolitan, and Barcelona.
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What a USL D1 league might look like

TL;DR: Man with too much time on his hands goes deep down the rabbit hole on a concept this sub already didn’t seem that enthusiastic about. If you really want to skip ahead, CTRL+F “verdict” and it’ll get you there.
Two days ago, u/MrPhillyj2wns made a post asking whether USL should launch a D1 league in order to compete in Concacaf. From the top voted replies, it appears this made a lot of people very angry and has been widely regarded as a bad move.
But I’ve been at home for eight weeks and I am terribly, terribly bored.
So, I present to you this overview of what the USL pyramid might look like if Jake Edwards got a head of steam and attempted to establish a USSF-sanctioned first division. This is by no means an endorsement of such a proposal or even a suggestion that USL SHOULD do such a thing. It is merely an examination of whether they COULD.
Welcome to the Thunderdome USL Premiership
First, there are some base-level assumptions we must make in this exercise, because it makes me feel more scientific and not like a guy who wrote this on Sunday while watching the Belarusian Premier League (Go BATE Borisov!).
  1. All D1 teams must comply with known USSF requirements for D1 leagues (more on that later).
  2. MLS, not liking this move, will immediately remove all directly-owned affiliate clubs from the USL structure (this does not include hybrid ownerships, like San Antonio FC – NYCFC). This removes all MLS2 teams but will not affect Colorado Springs, Reno, RGVFC and San Antonio.
  3. The USL will attempt to maintain both the USL Championship and USL League One, with an eventual mind toward creating the pro/rel paradise that is promised in Relegations 3:16.
  4. All of my research regarding facility size and ownership net worth is correct – this is probably the biggest leap of faith we have to make, since googling “NAME net worth” and “CITY richest people” doesn’t seem guaranteed to return accurate results.
  5. The most a club can increase its available seating capacity to meet D1 requirements in a current stadium is no more than 1,500 seats (10% of the required 15,000). If they need to add more, they’ll need a new facility.
  6. Let’s pretend that people are VERY willing to sell. It’s commonly acknowledged that the USL is a more financially feasible route to owning a soccer club than in MLS (c.f. MLS-Charlotte’s reported $325 million expansion fee) and the USSF has some very strict requirements for D1 sanctioning. It becomes pretty apparent when googling a lot of team’s owners that this requirement isn’t met, so let’s assume everyone that can’t sells to people who meet the requirements.
(Known) USSF D1 league requirements:
- League must have 12 teams to apply and 14 teams by year three
- Majority owner must have a net worth of $40 million, and the ownership group must have a total net worth of $70 million. The value of an owned stadium is not considered when calculating this value.
- Must have teams located in the Eastern, Central and Pacific time zones
- 75% of league’s teams must be based in markets with at a metro population of at least 1 million people.
- All league stadiums must have a capacity of at least 15,000
The ideal club candidate for the USL Premiership will meet the population and capacity requirements in its current ground, which will have a grass playing surface. Of the USL Championship’s 27 independent/hybrid affiliate clubs, I did not find one club that meets all these criteria as they currently stand.
Regarding turf fields, the USSF does not have a formal policy regarding the ideal playing surface but it is generally acknowledged that grass is superior to turf. 6 of 26 MLS stadiums utilize turf, or roughly 23% of stadiums. We’ll hold a similar restriction for our top flight, so 2-3 of our top flight clubs can have turf fields. Seem fair?
Capacity is going to be the biggest issue, since the disparity between current requirements for the second-tier (5,000) and the first tier (15,000) is a pretty massive gap. Nice club you have there, triple your capacity and you’re onto something. As a result, I have taken the liberty of relocating certain (read: nearly all) clubs to new grounds, trying my utmost to keep those clubs in their current markets and –importantly--, ensure they play on grass surfaces.
So, let’s do a case-by-case evaluation and see if we can put together 12-14 teams that meet the potential requirements, because what else do you have to do?
For each club’s breakdown, anything that represents a chance from what is currently true will be underlined.
Candidate: Birmingham Legion FC
Location (Metro population): Birmingham, Ala. (1,151,801)
Time zone: Central
Stadium (playing surface, capacity): Legion Field (FieldTurf, 71,594)
Potential owner: Stephens Family (reported net worth $4 billion)
Notes: Birmingham has a pretty strong candidacy. Having ditched the 5,000-seater BBVA Field for Legion Field, which sits 2.4 miles away, they’ve tapped into the city’s soccer history. Legion Field hosted portions of both the men’s and women’s tournaments at the 1996 Olympics, including a 3-1 U.S. loss to Argentina that saw 83,183 pack the house. The Harbert family seemed like strong ownership contenders, but since the death of matriarch Marguerite Harbert in 2015, it’s unclear where the wealth in the family is concentrated, so the Stephens seem like a better candidate. The only real knock that I can think of is that we really want to avoid having clubs play on turf, so I’d say they’re on the bubble of our platonic ideal USL Prem.
Candidate: Charleston Battery
Location (Metro population): Charleston, S.C. (713,000)
Time zone: Eastern
Stadium (playing surface, capacity): Johnson Hagood Stadium (Grass, ~14,700)
Potential owner: Anita Zucker (reported net worth $3 billion)
Notes: Charleston’s candidacy isn’t looking great. Already disadvantaged due to its undersized metro population, a move across the Cooper River to Johnson Hagood Stadium is cutting it close in terms of capacity. The stadium, home to The Citadel’s football team, used to seat 21,000, before 9,300 seats on the eastern grandstand were torn down in 2017 to deal with lead paint that had been used in their construction. Renovation plans include adding 3,000 seats back in, which could hit 15,000 if they bumped it to 3,300, but throw in a required sale by HCFC, LLC (led by content-creation platform founder Rob Salvatore) to chemical magnate Anita Zucker, and you’ll see there’s a lot of ifs and ands in this proposal.
Candidate: Charlotte Independence
Location (Metro population): Charlotte, N.C. (2,569, 213)
Time zone: Eastern
Stadium (playing surface, capacity): Jerry Richardson Stadium (Turf, 15,314)
Potential owner: James Goodnight (reported net worth $9.1 billion)
Notes: Charlotte ticks a lot of the boxes. A move from the Sportsplex at Matthews to UNC-Charlotte’s Jerry Richardson stadium meets capacity requirements, but puts them on to the dreaded turf. Regrettably, nearby American Legion Memorial Stadium only seats 10,500, despite a grass playing surface. With a sizeable metro population (sixth-largest in the USL Championship) and a possible owner in software billionaire James Goodnight, you’ve got some options here. The biggest problem likely lies in direct competition for market share against a much better-funded MLS Charlotte side due to join the league in 2021.
Candidate: Hartford Athletic
Location (Metro population): Hartford, Conn. (1,214,295)
Time zone: Eastern
Stadium (playing surface, capacity): Pratt & Whitney Stadium (Grass, 38,066)
Potential owner: Ray Dalio (reported net worth $18.4 billion)
Notes: Okay, I cheated a bit here, having to relocate Hartford to Pratt & Whitney Stadium, which is technically in East Hartford, Conn. I don’t know enough about the area to know if there’s some kind of massive beef between the two cities, but the club has history there, having played seven games in 2019 while Dillon Stadium underwent renovations. If the group of local businessmen that currently own the club manage to attract Dalio to the table, we’re on to something.
Candidate: Indy Eleven
Location (Metro population): Indianapolis, Ind. (2,048,703)
Time zone: Eastern
Stadium (playing surface, capacity): Lucas Oil Stadium (Turf, 62,421)
Potential owner: Jim Irsay (reported net worth of $3 billion)
Notes: Indy Eleven are a club that are SO CLOSE to being an ideal candidate – if it weren’t for Lucas Oil Stadium’s turf playing surface. Still, there’s a lot to like in this bid. I’m not going to lie, I have no idea what current owner and founder Ersal Ozdemir is worth, but it seems like there might be cause for concern. A sale to Irsay, who also owns the NFL Indianapolis (nee Baltimore) Colts, seems likely to keep the franchise there, rather than make a half-mile move to 14,230 capacity Victory Field where the AAA Indianapolis Indians play and expand from there.
Candidate: Louisville City FC
Location (Metro population): Louisville, Ky. (1,297,310)
Time zone: Eastern
Stadium (playing surface, capacity): Lynn Family Stadium (Grass, 14,000, possibly expandable to 20,000)
Potential owner: Wayne Hughes (reported net worth $2.8 billion)
Notes: I’m stretching things a bit here. Lynn Family stadium is currently listed as having 11,700 capacity that’s expandable to 14,000, but they’ve said that the ground could hold as many as 20,000 with additional construction, which might be enough to grant them a temporary waiver from USSF. If the stadium is a no-go, then there’s always Cardinal Stadium, home to the University of Louisville’s football team, which seats 65,000 but is turf. Either way, it seems like a sale to someone like Public Storage founder Wayne Hughes will be necessary to ensure the club has enough capital.
Candidate: Memphis 901 FC
Location (Metro population): Memphis, Tenn. (1,348,260)
Time zone: Central
Stadium (playing surface, capacity): Liberty Bowl Stadium (Turf, 58,325)
Potential owner: Fred Smith (reported net worth $3 billion)
Notes: Unfortunately for Memphis, AutoZone Park’s 10,000 seats won’t cut it at the D1 level. With its urban location, it would likely prove tough to renovate, as well. Liberty Bowl Stadium more than meets the need, but will involve the use of the dreaded turf. As far as an owner goes, FedEx founder Fred Smith seems like a good local option.
Candidate: Miami FC, “The”
Location (Metro population): Miami, Fla. (6,158,824)
Time zone: Eastern
Stadium (playing surface, capacity): Riccardo Silva Stadium (FieldTurf, 20,000)
Potential owner: Riccardo Silva (reported net worth $1 billion)
Notes: Well, well, well, Silva might get his wish for top-flight soccer, after all. He’s got the money, he’s got the metro, and his ground has the capacity. There is the nagging issue of the turf, though. Hard Rock Stadium might present a solution, including a capacity of 64,767 and a grass playing surface. It is worth noting, however, that this is the first profile where I didn’t have to find a new potential owner for a club.
Candidate: North Carolina FC
Location (Metro population): Durham, N.C. (1,214,516 in The Triangle)
Time zone: Eastern
Stadium (playing surface, capacity): Carter-Finley Stadium (Grass/Turf, 57,583)
Potential owner: Steve Malik (precise net worth unknown) / Dennis Gillings (reported net worth of $1.7 billion)
Notes: We have our first “relocation” in North Carolina FC, who were forced to trade Cary’s 10,000-seat WakeMed Soccer Park for Carter-Finley Stadium in Durham, home of the NC State Wolfpack and 57,583 of their closest friends. The move is a whopping 3.1 miles, thanks to the close-knit hub that exists between Cary, Durham and Raleigh. Carter-Finley might be my favorite of the stadium moves in this exercise. The field is grass, but the sidelines are artificial turf. Weird, right? Either way, it was good enough for Juventus to play a friendly against Chivas de Guadalajara there in 2011. Maybe the move would be pushed for by new owner and medical magnate Dennis Gillings, whose British roots might inspire him to get involved in the Beautiful Game. Straight up, though, I couldn’t find a net worth for current owner Steve Malik, though he did sell his company MedFusion for $91 million in 2010, then bought it back for an undisclosed amount and sold it again for $43 million last November. I don’t know if Malik has the juice to meet D1 requirements, but I suspect he’s close.
Candidate: Pittsburgh Riverhounds SC
Location (Metro population): Pittsburgh, Penn. (2,362,453)
Time zone: Eastern
Stadium (playing surface, capacity): Heinz Field (Grass, 64,450)
Potential owner: Henry Hillman (reported net worth $2.5 billion)
Notes: I don’t know a ton about the Riverhounds, but this move in particular feels like depriving a pretty blue-collar club from its roots. Highmark Stadium is a no-go from a seating perspective, but the Steelers’ home stadium at Heinz Field would more than meet the requirements and have a grass surface that was large enough to be sanctioned for a FIFA friendly between the U.S. WNT and Costa Rica in 2015. As for an owner, Tuffy Shallenberger (first ballot owner name HOF) doesn’t seem to fit the USSF bill, but legendary Pittsburgh industrialist Henry Hillman might. I’m sure you’re asking, why not the Rooney Family, if they’ll play at Heinz Field? I’ll tell you: I honestly can’t seem to pin down a value for the family. The Steelers are valued at a little over a billion and rumors persist that Dan Rooney is worth $500 million, but I’m not sure. I guess the Rooneys would work too, but it’s a definite departure from an owner in Shallenberger who was described by one journalist as a guy who “wears boots, jeans, a sweater and a trucker hat.”
Candidate: Saint Louis FC
Location (Metro population): St. Louis, Mo. (2,807,338)
Time zone: Central
Stadium (playing surface, capacity): Busch Stadium (Grass, 45,494)
Potential owner: William DeWitt Jr. (reported net worth $4 billion)
Notes: Saint Louis has some weirdness in making the jump to D1. Current CEO Jim Kavanaugh is an owner of the MLS side that will begin play in 2022. The club’s current ground at West Community Stadium isn’t big enough, but perhaps a timely sale to Cardinals owner William DeWitt Jr. could see the club playing games at Busch Stadium, which has a well established history of hosting other sports like hockey, college football and soccer (most recently a U.S. WNT friendly against New Zealand in 2019). The competition with another MLS franchise wouldn’t be ideal, like Charlotte, but with a big enough population and cross marketing from the Cardinals, maybe there’s a winner here. Wacko idea: If Busch doesn’t pan out, send them to The Dome. Sure, it’s a 60k turf closed-in stadium, but we can go for that retro NASL feel and pay homage to our nation’s soccer history.
Candidate: Tampa Bay Rowdies
Location (Metro population): Tampa, Fla. (3,068,511)
Time zone: Eastern
Stadium (playing surface, capacity): Raymond James Stadium (Grass, 65,518)
Potential owner: Edward DeBartolo Jr. (reported net worth $3 billion)
Notes: This one makes me sad. Despite having never been there, I see Al Lang Stadium as an iconic part of the Rowdies experience. Current owner Bill Edwards proposed an expansion to 18,000 seats in 2016, but the move seems to have stalled out. Frustrated with the city’s lack of action, Edwards sells to one-time San Francisco 49ers owner Edward DeBartolo Jr., who uses his old NFL connections to secure a cushy lease at the home of the Buccaneers in Ray Jay, the site of a 3-1 thrashing of Antigua and Barbuda during the United States’ 2014 World Cup Qualifying campaign.
Breather. Hey, we finished the Eastern Conference teams. Why are you still reading this? Why am I still writing it? Time is a meaningless construct in 2020 my friends, we are adrift in the void, fueled only by brief flashes of what once was and what may yet still be.
Candidate: Austin Bold FC
Location (Metro population): Austin, Texas (2,168,316)
Time zone: Central
Stadium (playing surface, capacity): Darrel K Royal – Texas Memorial Stadium (FieldTurf, 95,594)
Potential owner: Michael Dell (reported net worth of $32.3 billion)
Notes: Anthony Precourt’s Austin FC has some unexpected competition and it comes in the form of tech magnate Michael Dell. Dell, were he to buy the club, would be one of the richest owners on our list and could flash his cash in the new first division. Would he have enough to convince Darrel K Royal – Texas Memorial Stadium (I’m not kidding, that’s its actual name) to go back to a grass surface, like it did from ’96-’08? That’s between Dell and nearly 100,000 UT football fans, but everything can be had for the right price.
Candidate: Colorado Springs Switchbacks FC
Location (Metro population): Colorado Springs, Colo. (738,939)
Time zone: Mountain
Stadium (playing surface, capacity): Falcon Stadium (FieldTurf, 46,692)
Potential owner: Charles Ergen (reported net worth $10.8 billion)
Notes: Welcome to Colorado Springs. We have hurdles. For the first time in 12 candidates, we’re back below the desired 1 million metro population mark. Colorado Springs actually plans to build a $35 million, 8,000 seat venue downtown that will be perfect for soccer, but in our timeline that’s 7,000 seats short. Enter Falcon Stadium, home of the Air Force Academy Falcons football team. Seems perfect except for the turf, right? Well, the tricky thing is that Falcon Stadium is technically on an active military base and is (I believe) government property. Challenges to getting in and out of the ground aside, the military tends to have a pretty grim view of government property being used by for-profit enterprises. Maybe Charles Ergen, founder and chairman of Dish Network, would be able to grease the right wheels, but you can go ahead and throw this into the “doubtful” category. It’s a shame, too. 6,035 feet of elevation is one hell of a home-field advantage.
Candidate: El Paso Locomotive FC
Location: El Paso, Texas
Time zone: Mountain
Stadium (playing surface, capacity): Sun Bowl (FieldTurf, 51,500)
Potential owner: Paul Foster (reported net worth $1.7 billion)
Notes: God bless Texas. When compiling this list, I found so many of the theoretical stadium replacements were nearly serviceable by high school football fields. That’s insane, right? Anyway, Locomotive don’t have to settle for one of those, they’ve got the Sun Bowl, which had its capacity reduced in 2001 to a paltry 51,500 (from 52,000) specifically to accommodate soccer. Sure, it’s a turf surface, but what does new owner Paul Foster (who is only the 1,477th wealthiest man in the world, per Forbes) care, he’s got a team in a top league. Side note: Did you know that the Sun Bowl college football game is officially, through sponsorship, the Tony the Tiger Sun Bowl? Why is it not the Frosted Flakes Sun Bowl? Why is the cereal mascot the promotional name of the football game? What are you doing, Kellogg’s?
Candidate: Las Vegas Lights FC
Location: Las Vegas, Nev. (2,227,053)
Time zone: Pacific
Stadium (playing surface, capacity): Allegiant Stadium (Grass, 61,000)
Potential owner: Sheldon Adelson (reported net worth $37.7 billion)
Notes: Sin City. You had to know that the club that once signed Freddy Adu because “why not” was going to go all out in our flashy hypothetical proposal. Thanks to my narrative control of this whole thing, they have. Adelson is the second-richest owner in the league and has decided to do everything first class. That includes using the new Raiders stadium in nearby unincorporated Paradise, Nevada, and spending boatloads on high profile transfers. Zlatan is coming back to the U.S., confirmed.
Candidate: New Mexico United
Location: Albuquerque, N.M.
Time zone: Mountain
Stadium (playing surface, capacity): Isotopes Park – officially Rio Grande Credit Union Field at Isotopes Park (Grass, 13,500 – 15,000 with expansion)
Potential owner: Maloof Family (reported net worth $1 billion)
Notes: New Mexico from its inception went deep on the community vibe, and I’ve tried to replicate that in this bid. The home field of Rio Grande Cr---I’m not typing out the whole thing—Isotopes Park falls just within the expansion rules we set to make it to 15,000 (weird, right?) and they’ve found a great local ownership group in the Lebanese-American Maloof (formerly Maalouf) family from Las Vegas. The only thing to worry about would be the metro population, but overall, this could be one of the gems of USL Prem.
Candidate: Oklahoma City Energy FC
Location: Oklahoma City, Okla. (1,396,445)
Time zone: Central
Stadium (playing surface, capacity): Chickasaw Bricktown Ballpark (Grass, 13,066)
Potential owner: Harold Hamm (reported net worth $14.2 billion)
Notes: There’s a bright golden haze on the meadow and it says it’s time to change stadiums and owners to make it to D1. A sale to oil magnate Harold Hamm would give the club the finances it needs, but Chickasaw Bricktown Ballpark (home of the OKC Dodgers) actually falls outside of the boundary of what would meet capacity if 1,500 seats were added. Could the club pull off a move to Gaylord Family Oklahoma Memorial Stadium in Norman, Oklahoma – home of the Oklahoma Sooners? Maybe, but at 20 miles, this would be a reach.
Candidate: Orange County SC
Location: Irvine, Calif. (3,176, 000 in Orange County)
Time zone: Pacific
Stadium (playing surface, capacity): Angels Stadium of Anaheim (Grass, 43,250)
Potential owner: Arte Moreno (reported net worth $3.3 billion)
Notes: You’ll never convince me that Rangers didn’t choose to partner with Orange County based primarily on its name. Either way, a sale to MLB Angels owner Arte Moreno produces a fruitful partnership, with the owner choosing to play his newest club out of the existing Angels stadium in OC. Another baseball conversion, sure, but with a metro population of over 3 million and the closest thing this hypothetical league has to an LA market, who’s complaining?
Candidate: Phoenix Rising FC
Location: Phoenix, Ariz. (4,857,962)
Time zone: Arizona
Stadium (playing surface, capacity): State Farm Stadium (Grass, 63,400)
Potential owner: Ernest Garcia II (reported net worth $5.7 billion)
Notes: We’re keeping it local with new owner and used car guru Ernest Garcia II. His dad owned a liquor store and he dropped out of college, which is making me feel amazing about my life choices right now. Casino Arizona Field is great, but State Farm Stadium is a grass surface that hosted the 2019 Gold Cup semifinal, so it’s a clear winner. Throw in Phoenix’s massive metro population and this one looks like a lock.
Candidate: Reno 1868 FC
Location: Reno, Nev. (425,417)
Time zone: Pacific
Stadium (playing surface, capacity): Mackay Stadium (FieldTurf, 30,000)
Potential owner: Nancy Walton Laurie (reported net worth $7.1 billion)
Notes: The Biggest Little City on Earth has some serious barriers to overcome, thanks to its low metro population. A sale to Walmart heiress Nancy Walton Laurie and 1.6 mile-move to Mackay Stadium to split space with the University of Nevada, Reno makes this bid competitive, but the turf surface is another knock against it.
Candidate: Rio Grande Valley FC
Location: Edinburg, Texas (900,304)
Time zone: Central
Stadium (playing surface, capacity): McAllen Memorial Stadium (FieldTurf, 13,500 – 15,000 with expansion)
Potential owner: Alice Louise Walton (reported net worth $45 billion)
Notes: Yes, I have a second straight Walmart heiress on the list. She was the first thing that popped up when I googled “McAllen Texas richest people.” The family rivalry has spurred Walton to buy a club as well, moving them 10 miles to McAllen Memorial Stadium which, as I alluded to earlier, is a straight up high school football stadium with a full color scoreboard. Toss in an additional 1,500 seats and you’ve met the minimum, despite the turf playing surface.
Candidate: San Antonio FC
Location: San Antonio, Texas (2,550,960)
Time zone: Central
Stadium (playing surface, capacity): Alamodome (FieldTurf, 64,000)
Potential owner: Red McCombs (reported net worth $1.6 billion)
Notes: I wanted to keep SAFC in the Spurs family, since the franchise is valued at $1.8 billion. That said, I didn’t let the Rooneys own the Riverhounds based on the Steelers’ value and it felt wrong to change the rules, so bring on Clear Channel co-founder Red McCombs. Toyota Field isn’t viable in the first division, but for the Alamodome, which was built in 1993 in hopes of attracting an NFL franchise (and never did), San Antonio can finally claim having *a* national football league team in its town (contingent on your definition of football). Now if only we could do something about that turf…
Candidate: San Diego Loyal SC
Location: San Diego, Calif. (3,317,749)
Time zone: Pacific
Stadium (playing surface, capacity): SDCCU Stadium (formerly Qualcomm) (Grass, 70,561)
Potential owner: Phil Mickelson (reported net worth $91 million)
Notes: Yes, golf’s Phil Mickelson. The existing ownership group didn’t seem to have the wherewithal to meet requirements, and Phil seemed to slot right in. As an athlete himself, he might be interesting in the new challenges of a top flight soccer team. Toss in a move to the former home of the chargers and you might have a basis for tremendous community support.
Candidate: FC Tulsa
Location: Tulsa, Okla. (991,561)
Time zone: Central
Stadium (playing surface, capacity): Skelly Field at H.A. Chapman Stadium (FieldTurf, 30,000)
Potential owner: George Kaiser ($10 billion)
Notes: I’m a fan of FC Tulsa’s rebrand, but if they want to make the first division, more changes are necessary. A sale to Tulsa native and one of the 100 richest men in the world George Kaiser means that funding is guaranteed. A move to Chapman Stadium would provide the necessary seats, despite the turf field. While the undersize population might be an issue at first glance, it’s hard to imagine U.S. Soccer not granting a waiver over a less than a 10k miss from the mark.
And that’s it! You made it. Those are all of the independent/hybrid affiliates in the USL Championship, which means that it’s time for our…
VERDICT: As an expert who has studied this issue for almost an entire day now, I am prepared to pronounce which USL Championships could be most ‘ready” for a jump to the USL Prem. A reminder that of the 27 clubs surveyed, 0 of them met our ideal criteria (proper ownership $, metro population, 15,000+ stadium with grass field).
Two of them, however, met almost all of those criteria: Indy Eleven and Miami FC. Those two clubs may use up two of our three available turf fields right from the outset, but the other factors they hit (particularly Silva’s ownership of Miami) makes them difficult, if not impossible to ignore for the top flight.
But who fill in the rest of the slots? Meet the entire 14-team USL Premier League:
Hartford Athletic
Indy Eleven
Louisville City FC
Miami FC
North Carolina FC
Pittsburgh Riverhounds SC
Tampa Bay Rowdies
Saint Louis FC
San Antonio FC
New Mexico United
Phoenix Rising FC
Las Vegas Lights FC
Orange County SC
San Diego Loyal SC
Now, I shall provide my expert rationale for each club’s inclusion/exclusion, which can be roughly broken down into four categories.
Firm “yes”
Hartford Athletic: It’s a good market size with a solid stadium. With a decent investor and good community support, you’ve got potential here.
Indy Eleven: The turf at Lucas Oil Stadium is no reason to turn down a 62,421 venue and a metro population of over 2 million.
Louisville City FC: Why doesn’t the 2017 & 2018 USL Cup champion deserve a crack at the top flight? They have the market size, and with a bit of expansion have the stadium at their own SSS. LCFC, you’re in.
Miami FC, “The”: Our other blue-chip recruit on the basis of ownership value, market size and stadium capacity. Yes, that field is turf, but how could you snub Silva’s chance to claim victory as the first division 1 club soccer team to play in Miami?
Pittsburgh Riverhounds SC: Pittsburgh sacrificed a lot to be here (according to my arbitrary calculations). Their market size and the potential boon of soccer at Heinz Field is an important inclusion to the league.
Saint Louis FC: Willie hears your “Busch League” jokes, Willie don’t care. A huge market size, combined with the absence of an NFL franchise creates opportunity. Competition with the MLS side, sure, but St. Louis has serious soccer history and we’re willing to bet it can support two clubs.
Tampa Bay Rowdies: With a huge population and a massive stadium waiting nearby, Tampa Bay seems like too good of an opportunity to pass up for the USL Prem.
Las Vegas Lights FC: Ostentatious, massive and well-financed, Las Vegas Lights FC is everything that the USL Premier League would need to assert that it didn’t intend to play second fiddle to MLS. Players will need to be kept on a short leash, but this is a hard market to pass up on.
Phoenix Rising FC: Huge population, big grass field available nearby and a solid history of success in recent years. No brainer.
San Diego Loyal SC: New club? Yes, massive population in a market that recently lost an absolutely huge sports presence? Also yes. This could be the USL Prem’s Seattle.
Cautious “yes”
New Mexico United: You have to take a chance on New Mexico United. The club set the league on fire with its social media presence and its weight in the community when it entered the league last season. The market may be slightly under USSF’s desired 1 million, but fervent support (and the ability to continue to use Isotopes Park) shouldn’t be discounted.
North Carolina FC: Carter-Finley’s mixed grass/turf surface is a barrier, to be sure, but the 57,000+ seats it offers (and being enough to offset other fully-turf offerings) is enough to put it in the black.
Orange County SC: It’s a top-tier club playing in a MLB stadium. I know it seems unlikely that USSF would approve something like that, but believe me when I say “it could happen.” Orange County is a massive market and California likely needs two clubs in the top flight.
San Antonio FC: Our third and only voluntary inclusion to the turf fields in the first division, we’re counting on San Antonio’s size and massive potential stadium to see it through.
Cautious “no”
Birmingham Legion FC: The town has solid soccer history and a huge potential venue, but the turf playing surface puts it on the outside looking in.
Memphis 901 FC: Like Birmingham, not much to dislike here outside of the turf playing surface at the larger playing venue.
Austin Bold FC: See the other two above.
FC Tulsa: Everything’s just a little bit off with this one. Market’s slightly too small, stadium has turf. Just not enough to put it over the top.
Firm “no”
Charleston Battery: Small metro and a small potential new stadium? It’s tough to say yes to the risk.
Charlotte Independence: A small new stadium and the possibility of having to compete with an organization that just paid over $300 million to join MLS means it’s best for this club to remain in the USL Championship.
Colorado Springs Switchbacks FC: When a club’s best chance to meet a capacity requirement is to host games at a venue controlled by the military, that doesn’t speak well to a club’s chances.
El Paso Locomotive FC: An undersized market and a turf field that meets capacity requirements is the death knell for this one.
Oklahoma City Energy FC: Having to expand a baseball field to meet requirements is a bad start. Having to potentially play 20 miles away from your main market is even worse.
Reno 1868 FC: Population nearly a half-million short of the federation’s requirements AND a turf field at the hypothetical new stadium makes impossible to say yes to this bid.
Rio Grande Valley FC: All the seat expansions in the world can’t hide the fact that McAllen Memorial Stadium is a high school stadium through and through.
Here’s who’s left in the 11-team Championship:
Birmingham Legion FC
Charleston Battery
Charlotte Independence
Memphis 901 FC
Austin Bold FC
Colorado Springs Switchbacks FC
El Paso Locomotive FC
Oklahoma City Energy FC
Reno 1868 FC
Rio Grande Valley FC
FC Tulsa
With MLS folding the six affiliates it has in USL League One, the league is a little bit thin (especially considering USSF’s requirements for 8 teams for lower level leagues), but seems definitely able to expand up to the necessary numbers with Edwards’ allusions to five new additions this year:
Chattanooga Red Wolves SC
Forward Madison FC
Greenville Triumph SC
Union Omaha
Richmond Kickers
South Georgia Tormenta
FC Tucson
Format of Assorted Leagues – This (like everything in this post) is pure conjecture on my part, but here are my thoughts on how these leagues might function in a first year while waiting for additional expansion.
USL Premier – We’ll steal from the 12-team Scottish Premiership. Each club plays the other 11 clubs 3 times, with either one or two home matches against each side. When each club has played 33 matches, the top six and bottom six separate, with every club playing an additional five matches (against each other team in its group). The top club wins the league. The bottom club is automatically relegated. The second-bottom club will enter a two-legged playoff against someone (see below) from the championship playoffs.
USL Championship -- 11 clubs is a challenge to schedule for. How about every club plays everyone else three times (either one or two home matches against each side)? Top four clubs make the playoffs, which are decided by two-legged playoffs. The winner automatically goes up. I need feedback on the second part – is it better to have the runner-up from the playoffs face the second-bottom club from the Premiership, or should the winner of the third-place match-up get the chance to face them to keep drama going in both playoff series? As for relegation, we can clearly only send down the last place club while the third division is so small.
USL League One – While the league is so small, it doesn’t seem reasonable to have the clubs play as many matches as the higher divisions. Each club could play the other six clubs four times – twice at home and twice away – for a very equitable 24-match regular season, which would help restrict costs and still provide a chance to determine a clear winner. Whoever finishes top of the table goes up.
And there you have it, a hypothetical look at how the USL could build a D1 league right now. All it would take is a new stadium for almost the entire league and new owners for all but one of the 27 clubs, who wouldn’t feel that their property would be massively devalued if they got relegated.
Well that’s our show. I’m curious to see what you think of all of this, especially anything that you think I may have overlooked (I’m sure there’s plenty). Anyway, I hope you’re all staying safe and well.
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A Thorough Review of Robins AFB

COPY PASTA from my post at AirForce!
A Thorough Review of Robins AFB
Hello Everyone,
This is my review of Robins AFB after living here for the past 5 years. Hope you find this helpful!
If you’re familiar with using Google Map/GPS to help you get to a military base, it can be difficult to find an open gate without your GPS telling you to turn/U-Turn into a closed gate!
Put in your GPS, “Martin’s BBQ, 102 S Armed Forces Blvd, Warner Robins, GA 31088.” It will take you to Watson Blvd and to the only 24hr gate; Watson Gate. This is also the gate to get visitor passes for your friends/family.
The other gate you’ll be using a lot is Russell gate which is connected to Russell Pkwy. I’ll be assuming you’re driving from the Atlanta airport, so south of Highway 247. GPS the “Museum of Aviation” and about 100 yards before you arrive at the MoA, exit right to Russell Gate. Note, Russell Gate closes at 2400 (0100 on Fri and Sat only) and opens up at 0430 on weekdays and 0500 on the weekends. Hours subject to change, check online for more specific hours!
Green Gate and MLK Gate are two other notable gates mainly for inbound and outbound traffic in the morning rush/afternoon rush.
Bowling Alley: 908 Ninth Street (478-926-2112)
Fitness CenteBase Gym: 826 Eighth Street (478-926-9128)
Fitness Annex/24 Hour Gym: Bldg 301 (478-926-2840)
Finance: 236 Milledgeville Street Suite 526 (478-926-4022)
Heritage Club/Restaurant: 956 Ninth St (Various Numbers)
ITT/Outdoor Recreation: Bldg 984 (Located next to the Main BX) (478-926-4001)
Medical Clinic: 655 Seventh St (478-327-7850 Appointment Line)
MPF/MPS: 660 Macon St (478-327-5666)
Warner Robins - The main city outside of Robins AFB is Warner Robins. WR will be referenced a lot while you are here at Robins. WR can be summed up in a few words as a small-sized southern city with churches and chain restaurants. The city consists of two main counties; Houston (pronounced “House Ton” and not “Hugh’s Town.” People will correct you on this!) and Peach County.
Macon - Located about 15 miles north of Robins AFB/Warner Robins. Macon has a lot of history and is nicknamed the “Heart of Georgia” because it is in the center of GA. Honestly IMO, Macon is pretty ghetto… What happened to Macon is similar to Detroit.. Both places were once thriving industrial cities until their main asset collapsed. You’ll see a lot of abandoned buildings when you drive to downtown Macon. It is pretty sad. There are some nice areas in Macon to visit though, like around Zebulon Road. I’d still recommend going downtown to eat at some nice mom and pop stores. Make sure to never go alone, however.
Savannah - Located about 2 ½ hours to 3 hours South-East/East of Robins. It is the #1 “Most Haunted” city in the United States apparently. It is really fun to visit. Eat seafood and go on some ghost tours while you’re there. The #3 Ice Cream Shop in the U.S. is in Savannah, Leopolds, if you love ice cream. The vibe can be described as a cross between Florida and South Carolina and “hipster-ish” thanks to SCAD there. Be prepared to walk a lot. Free parking on the weekends! Almost every store gives military discounts since there is an Army Base nearby. Give yourself 3 days and 2 nights to really have a grasp and enjoy Savannah.
Atlanta - The capital of GA and the place to be! It is located about 100 miles north of Robins which takes about 2 ½ hours to drive, thanks to the good ol’ Atlanta traffic! There is an abundant amount of things to do and sightsee that I will talk about later in this post.
Owen’s Boarding House is one of my favorite mom and pop stores in WR and it's really close to the base for a quick lunch! Owen’s is an all-you-can-eat lunch-only southern restaurant, dig in those chicken wings! It’s about $10.50, cash only.
The Rookery, in downtown Macon, is one you’ll hear a lot of. It is an old southern/burger joint. The store has a fancy dining upstairs; The Dovetail, if you’re into that.
Martin's BBQ, I referenced it earlier as a good point to locate Robins AFB but it is also a popular BBQ!
WR really loves Mexican food, and so do I! Taco Shed is next to the Museum of Aviation, it is American Mexican food. Salsa’s which is a dining American Mexican restaurant. My Grandma’s Empanadas and Luis for more authentic Mexican food. Cuban Cafe sells pretty good Cuban food. Tacos and More, I wasn't a huge fan of it but one of the comments mentioned it and it does sell $1 tacos, try it out!
Wasn't a fan of Saigon Noodle in WR, its close to base, which is why I believe their portions are small for a Vietnamese place. Plus, the Pho soup has MSG!
Pho Saigon in Macon is great, however. Good portions, and no MSG in their soups!
Stir King is a nice American Chinese place which gives good portions. I am not a fan of the “Japanese” food in WR, better go to Atlanta for real sushi and ramen. Also… screw all of WR’s Hibachi restaurants.
I did not mention any corporate/franchise restaurants since you may already be familiar with them and only want to mention the mom n pop stores.
They’re also “Senior Airmen” dorms for Airmen who’ve stayed longer in the dorms. Essentially, a SrA dorm is a larger dorm with no suite-mate and no kitchen. If the dorms have no availability, Airmen with the longest TOS (Time-on-Station) will be allowed to leave early. You can ask regularly if the dorms are full and maybe you can leave ahead of others.
Certain circumstances can allow you to leave the dorms early such as being a mature age (like over the age of 30) or being married but your spouse is currently living elsewhere due to service, school, etc.
My personal experience: I lived in the dorms and I would describe the overall experience as “okay.” It can be hit or miss with a good suite-mate and your dorm might have mold in them... I didn’t though. Typically activities of dorm airmen include going clubbing, the gym, and/or playing video games. Overall, I enjoyed living in the dorms because of the access to network with other Airmen, not cooking my own food, because of the DEFAC, and friends were just close by.
I lived in Warner Robins after I moved off base from the dorms, and the area was okay. Generally speaking, the further you live off base, (and this goes for all military bases) the safer the environment becomes.
If you’re wanting to live in a nicer area and/or have kids. Look into living in cities Kathleen and/or Bonaire. The area and school system (like Houston County High School) is much nicer than the rest of the public school system.
Cities like Perry and Bryon have far commutes of at least 20 minutes but can be described as “rural” if like not knowing your neighbors.
IMO, please do yourself a favor and do not live off or near Green St. (Hint. It’s right off Green St Gate!) I would also not recommend living in Macon. Imma be real and say Macon is pretty ghetto in most parts of the city (unless you live off Zebulon Rd) and the commute to work is going to be at least 20 mins to work. Edit: Forgot to mention Riverside in Macon. It is still relatively new and the area is nice and so are the neighborhoods. The Riverside Mall is an outdoor mall, very safe and clean. Don't go to the Macon Mall, however.
Essentially, South-West of Warner Robins is the best place to live. Where Feagin Mill Rd and Highway 96 is.
Off Base Housing community is called Huntington Chase, it’s ghetto from what my co-workers have told me as they’ve gunshots go off frequently and cars are breaking into. Off-Base housing is open to civilians and not just military.
Coca Cola Factory - Entry is free for military (does not include dependents) and it is a nice place to go on a date. Try flavors of coke from around the world!
Aquarium - IMO, the experience felt it was geared towards children, I would only pay during special military days because $33 is not worth the visit!
Atlanta Zoo - Never been but it is another sight seeing opportunity.
Dragon Con - A.K.A. “Comic Con of the East.” Where 80k of your “best friends” come meet in a 4-day comic/pop culture/movie/ convention which spans across 5 hotels! Most people get turned off when they hear “comic” as they associate this con with sweaty nerds… Well, they aren’t wrong! But I can guarantee you’ll be missing out if you did not attend this con at least once while you’re at Robins. Even if you don’t love comics, movies, anime, or pop culture (who doesn’t like at least one of the 4?) you can open drink in public for the duration of the con! It is always during Labor Day weekend every year. And if you don’t mind paying for the price of a host hotel, they’re worth it. Good luck because they get booked fast!
Anime Weekend Atlanta - An Anime Con that specializes on having Japanese pop/rock stars to play in the con!
MomoCon - An Anime Con that specializes in 24hour gaming/arcade gaming for the entire weekend!
Ponce City Market - A hipster food and shopping market that used an abandoned factory as their shopping district. Please do yourself a favor and park in Ponce City Market’s parking and not try to get “free” parking from the plaza across the street. You’ll get a “boot” on your car when you come back and have to pay a fine… Ask me how I figured that out...
Caffeine and Octane - A huge car meet in Atlanta that meets regularly.
Mardi Gras: The drive to Louisiana is about 6 hours but I know some Airmen who made the trip to be there for Mardi Gras.
Florida: The drive will take at least 3 hours to cross the Florida border. Florida is fun, do I need to say more?
Professional Sports: Altanta Hawks, Braves, and Falcons! Look for special discounts near Veterans days like Hoops for Troops. The Falco
Don’t forget to check the ITT office for free or reduce price activities for “single Airmen!” Seriously, I’ve gone skydiving, deep sea fishing, paintballing, etc for free or reduced prices! 50% of Disney Park passes!
Obviously, there are more things to do than the list I provided, DYOR and maybe you’ll find a place and/or hidden gem you’ll love!
A lot of your co-workers will most likely talk crap about Robins. Well, they’re probably the same salty Airmen who put Robins AFB, 9th, on their dream sheet and how trying to figure out how Eglin or Macdill wasn’t chosen even though it was #1 and #3 on their dream sheet. But even if they aren’t those types of Airmen.... Robins is one of those “what you make of it bases.”
You. Yes you, Airman, have to create your own experiences and be willing to leave your dorm and not be a dorm rat to make memories at Robins. This base isn’t centrally located to anything known for “fun” like all the bases in San Antonio, all Florida bases, Travis, Keesler and the casinos, etc. Even that hot A1C still has to make an effort to venture out and explore new roads and can’t rely on other people to do it for them.
“Robins-ism.” For whatever reason, “Robin-ism” is basically AFIs and the proper order of how to do things in the Air Force... does not apply the same for Robins. You’ll hear a lot of “that’s not how we did that at my last base.” People say it's because the amount of civilians outnumbers the military 3:1. And with that, if the civilians don’t like the AFI/protocol, it will slowly but surely die out and a “Robin-ism” method of how to do things soon takes over. I am not blaming the large civilian population, it is just what Airmen accept is the reason why some people on this base can be lazy at times.
Allergies. If you never experienced allergies or have in the past. Well, Warner Robins has a surprise for you... Seriously, you could potentially suffer from bad allergies.
I hope you found this review helpful if you're incoming to Robins whether it'd be a PCS or TDY, or if you just wanted to read my review.
Edit: Added more info.
Edit 2: I have since PCSed from Robins in 2020.
submitted by Be-a-better-wingman to RateMyAFB [link] [comments]

A Thorough Review of Robins AFB

Hello Everyone,
This is my review of Robins AFB after living here for the past 5 years. Hope you find this helpful!
If you’re familiar with using Google Map/GPS to help you get to a military base, it can be difficult to find an open gate without your GPS telling you to turn/U-Turn into a closed gate!
Put in your GPS, “Martin’s BBQ, 102 S Armed Forces Blvd, Warner Robins, GA 31088.” It will take you to Watson Blvd and to the only 24hr gate; Watson Gate. This is also the gate to get visitor passes for your friends/family.
The other gate you’ll be using a lot is Russell gate which is connected to Russell Pkwy. I’ll be assuming you’re driving from the Atlanta airport, so south of Highway 247. GPS the “Museum of Aviation” and about 100 yards before you arrive at the MoA, exit right to Russell Gate. Note, Russell Gate closes at 2400 (0100 on Fri and Sat only) and opens up at 0430 on weekdays and 0500 on the weekends. Hours subject to change, check online for more specific hours!
Green Gate and MLK Gate are two other notable gates mainly for inbound and outbound traffic in the morning rush/afternoon rush.
Bowling Alley: 908 Ninth Street (478-926-2112)
Fitness CenteBase Gym: 826 Eighth Street (478-926-9128)
Fitness Annex/24 Hour Gym: Bldg 301 (478-926-2840)
Finance: 236 Milledgeville Street Suite 526 (478-926-4022)
Heritage Club/Restaurant: 956 Ninth St (Various Numbers)
ITT/Outdoor Recreation: Bldg 984 (Located next to the Main BX) (478-926-4001)
Medical Clinic: 655 Seventh St (478-327-7850 Appointment Line)
MPF/MPS: 660 Macon St (478-327-5666)
Warner Robins - The main city outside of Robins AFB is Warner Robins. WR will be referenced a lot while you are here at Robins. WR can be summed up in a few words as a small-sized southern city with churches and chain restaurants. The city consists of two main counties; Houston (pronounced “House Ton” and not “Hugh’s Town.” People will correct you on this!) and Peach County.
Macon - Located about 15 miles north of Robins AFB/Warner Robins. Macon has a lot of history and is nicknamed the “Heart of Georgia” because it is in the center of GA. Honestly IMO, Macon is pretty ghetto… What happened to Macon is similar to Detroit.. Both places were once thriving industrial cities until their main asset collapsed. You’ll see a lot of abandoned buildings when you drive to downtown Macon. It is pretty sad. There are some nice areas in Macon to visit though, like around Zebulon Road. I’d still recommend going downtown to eat at some nice mom and pop stores. Make sure to never go alone, however.
Savannah - Located about 2 ½ hours to 3 hours South-East/East of Robins. It is the #1 “Most Haunted” city in the United States apparently. It is really fun to visit. Eat seafood and go on some ghost tours while you’re there. The #3 Ice Cream Shop in the U.S. is in Savannah, Leopolds, if you love ice cream. The vibe can be described as a cross between Florida and South Carolina and “hipster-ish” thanks to SCAD there. Be prepared to walk a lot. Free parking on the weekends! Almost every store gives military discounts since there is an Army Base nearby. Give yourself 3 days and 2 nights to really have a grasp and enjoy Savannah.
Atlanta - The capital of GA and the place to be! It is located about 100 miles north of Robins which takes about 2 ½ hours to drive, thanks to the good ol’ Atlanta traffic! There is an abundant amount of things to do and sightsee that I will talk about later in this post.
Owen’s Boarding House is one of my favorite mom and pop stores in WR and it's really close to the base for a quick lunch! Owen’s is an all-you-can-eat lunch-only southern restaurant, dig in those chicken wings! It’s about $10.50, cash only.
The Rookery, in downtown Macon, is one you’ll hear a lot of. It is an old southern/burger joint. The store has a fancy dining upstairs; The Dovetail, if you’re into that.
Martin's BBQ, I referenced it earlier as a good point to locate Robins AFB but it is also a popular BBQ!
WR really loves Mexican food, and so do I! Taco Shed is next to the Museum of Aviation, it is American Mexican food. Salsa’s which is a dining American Mexican restaurant. My Grandma’s Empanadas and Luis for more authentic Mexican food. Cuban Cafe sells pretty good Cuban food. Tacos and More, I wasn't a huge fan of it but one of the comments mentioned it and it does sell $1 tacos, try it out!
Wasn't a fan of Saigon Noodle in WR, its close to base, which is why I believe their portions are small for a Vietnamese place. Plus, the Pho soup has MSG!
Pho Saigon in Macon is great, however. Good portions, and no MSG in their soups!
Stir King is a nice American Chinese place which gives good portions. I am not a fan of the “Japanese” food in WR, better go to Atlanta for real sushi and ramen. Also… screw all of WR’s Hibachi restaurants.
I did not mention any corporate/franchise restaurants since you may already be familiar with them and only want to mention the mom n pop stores.
They’re also “Senior Airmen” dorms for Airmen who’ve stayed longer in the dorms. Essentially, a SrA dorm is a larger dorm with no suite-mate and no kitchen. If the dorms have no availability, Airmen with the longest TOS (Time-on-Station) will be allowed to leave early. You can ask regularly if the dorms are full and maybe you can leave ahead of others.
Certain circumstances can allow you to leave the dorms early such as being a mature age (like over the age of 30) or being married but your spouse is currently living elsewhere due to service, school, etc.
My personal experience: I lived in the dorms and I would describe the overall experience as “okay.” It can be hit or miss with a good suite-mate and your dorm might have mold in them... I didn’t though. Typically activities of dorm airmen include going clubbing, the gym, and/or playing video games. Overall, I enjoyed living in the dorms because of the access to network with other Airmen, not cooking my own food, because of the DEFAC, and friends were just close by.
I lived in Warner Robins after I moved off base from the dorms, and the area was okay. Generally speaking, the further you live off base, (and this goes for all military bases) the safer the environment becomes.
If you’re wanting to live in a nicer area and/or have kids. Look into living in cities Kathleen and/or Bonaire. The area and school system (like Houston County High School) is much nicer than the rest of the public school system.
Cities like Perry and Bryon have far commutes of at least 20 minutes but can be described as “rural” if like not knowing your neighbors.
IMO, please do yourself a favor and do not live off or near Green St. (Hint. It’s right off Green St Gate!) I would also not recommend living in Macon. Imma be real and say Macon is pretty ghetto in most parts of the city (unless you live off Zebulon Rd) and the commute to work is going to be at least 20 mins to work. Edit: Forgot to mention Riverside in Macon. It is still relatively new and the area is nice and so are the neighborhoods. The Riverside Mall is an outdoor mall, very safe and clean. Don't go to the Macon Mall, however.
Essentially, South-West of Warner Robins is the best place to live. Where Feagin Mill Rd and Highway 96 is.
Off Base Housing community is called Huntington Chase, it’s ghetto from what my co-workers have told me as they’ve gunshots go off frequently and cars are breaking into. Off-Base housing is open to civilians and not just military.
Coca Cola Factory - Entry is free for military (does not include dependents) and it is a nice place to go on a date. Try flavors of coke from around the world!
Aquarium - IMO, the experience felt it was geared towards children, I would only pay during special military days because $33 is not worth the visit!
Atlanta Zoo - Never been but it is another sight seeing opportunity.
Dragon Con - A.K.A. “Comic Con of the East.” Where 80k of your “best friends” come meet in a 4-day comic/pop culture/movie/ convention which spans across 5 hotels! Most people get turned off when they hear “comic” as they associate this con with sweaty nerds… Well, they aren’t wrong! But I can guarantee you’ll be missing out if you did not attend this con at least once while you’re at Robins. Even if you don’t love comics, movies, anime, or pop culture (who doesn’t like at least one of the 4?) you can open drink in public for the duration of the con! It is always during Labor Day weekend every year. And if you don’t mind paying for the price of a host hotel, they’re worth it. Good luck because they get booked fast!
Anime Weekend Atlanta - An Anime Con that specializes on having Japanese pop/rock stars to play in the con!
MomoCon - An Anime Con that specializes in 24hour gaming/arcade gaming for the entire weekend!
Ponce City Market - A hipster food and shopping market that used an abandoned factory as their shopping district. Please do yourself a favor and park in Ponce City Market’s parking and not try to get “free” parking from the plaza across the street. You’ll get a “boot” on your car when you come back and have to pay a fine… Ask me how I figured that out...
Caffeine and Octane - A huge car meet in Atlanta that meets regularly.
Mardi Gras: The drive to Louisiana is about 6 hours but I know some Airmen who made the trip to be there for Mardi Gras.
Florida: The drive will take at least 3 hours to cross the Florida border. Florida is fun, do I need to say more?
Professional Sports: Altanta Hawks, Braves, and Falcons! Look for special discounts near Veterans days like Hoops for Troops. The Falco
Don’t forget to check the ITT office for free or reduce price activities for “single Airmen!” Seriously, I’ve gone skydiving, deep sea fishing, paintballing, etc for free or reduced prices! 50% of Disney Park passes!
Obviously, there are more things to do than the list I provided, DYOR and maybe you’ll find a place and/or hidden gem you’ll love!
A lot of your co-workers will most likely talk crap about Robins. Well, they’re probably the same salty Airmen who put Robins AFB, 9th, on their dream sheet and how trying to figure out how Eglin or Macdill wasn’t chosen even though it was #1 and #3 on their dream sheet. But even if they aren’t those types of Airmen.... Robins is one of those “what you make of it bases.”
You. Yes you, Airman, have to create your own experiences and be willing to leave your dorm and not be a dorm rat to make memories at Robins. This base isn’t centrally located to anything known for “fun” like all the bases in San Antonio, all Florida bases, Travis, Keesler and the casinos, etc. Even that hot A1C still has to make an effort to venture out and explore new roads and can’t rely on other people to do it for them.
“Robins-ism.” For whatever reason, “Robin-ism” is basically AFIs and the proper order of how to do things in the Air Force... does not apply the same for Robins. You’ll hear a lot of “that’s not how we did that at my last base.” People say it's because the amount of civilians outnumbers the military 3:1. And with that, if the civilians don’t like the AFI/protocol, it will slowly but surely die out and a “Robin-ism” method of how to do things soon takes over. I am not blaming the large civilian population, it is just what Airmen accept is the reason why some people on this base can be lazy at times.
Allergies. If you never experienced allergies or have in the past. Well, Warner Robins has a surprise for you... Seriously, you could potentially suffer from bad allergies.
I hope you found this review helpful if you're incoming to Robins whether it'd be a PCS or TDY, or if you just wanted to read my review.
Edit: Added more info.
submitted by Be-a-better-wingman to AirForce [link] [comments]

In 1982, two women disappear together in South Lake Tahoe, CA. Five and six months later, their bodies are discovered—but it seems they died only weeks ago. What happened to Julie Schossow and Marilyn Putt?

I searched Reddit and was surprised not to see a writeup of this case, particularly when it has been mentioned with serial killers including Leonard Lake and Zodiac (although, IMO, both seem unlikely suspects). Much of the accessible coverage (e.g., from the El Dorado DA) lacks details about the circumstances of their disappearance. I apologize in advance that this isn’t the smoothest writeup, but I’m trying to weave together details from a couple of different sources into a cohesive and accurate account.
The Disappearance
Julie Schossow, 25, and Marilyn Putt, 27, were close friends. They had both worked as blackjack dealers at the Harrah's Casino in South Lake Tahoe, on the border of Nevada and California, since May 1980. Marilyn had a 5-year-old son, Jason, and they had lived in a rented house at 725 Los Angeles Avenue since October 1981. The Putts shared the house with a roommate, Colleen Gore, who often helped take care of Jason. Schossow was in between apartments and temporarily living in the home as well. Neighbors recalled there were often many cars at the house, although there weren’t wild or noisy parties there. Jason was often seen playing in the snow with other neighborhood children.
On January 12, 1982, Schossow and Putt had both worked at Harrah’s and then returned home after their shift. What is known about the intervening hours seems to come largely from their roommate, Colleen Gore. Schossow and Putt told Gore they were going “to party,” and at approximately 1 AM, a car horn sounded outside of the house and the women left.
Both victims were seen drinking together at the Rendezvous Bar inside Harrah’s and leaving a bar with some men that evening, however I do not know if this happened before they returned home or after they went out again to party. Colleen told police that sometime during the night, Schossow came back to pick up her car. Putt called 11 hours later (unclear if this is at noon on January 13, or 11 hours after Schossow returned for the car) and said they had “met a couple of rich guys” and were headed to Sacramento or San Francisco. Putt asked Gore to babysit her son.
Gore did not report the women missing for four days. This would have been approximately January 17.
On February 2, police found Schossow’s brown Honda in the Harrah’s parking lot, covered in snow and with flat tires. Police said this indicated the car had been there since the day the women went missing, January 13. (What is mystifying is why the police knew the women were missing since January 17, knew Schossow’s car was missing, and knew both women worked at Harrah’s—yet apparently didn’t check that parking lot until February 2.)
Note this interesting passage in an article from February 18, 1982, in the Reno Gazette-Journal: “The neighbors and some of the women’s co-workers from Harrah’s are reluctant to talk about Putt and Schossow. One Los Angeles Avenue woman said she was worried about retribution from the ‘two men the girls were with that night,’ and the Harrah’s workers have been ordered by casino officials not to talk about the missing dealers.”
Discovery of the Bodies
On June 6, 1982, almost six months later, the body of Marilyn Putt was discovered in the South Fork of the American River, one mile west of an area known as Chili Bar off of Highway 193. Her body was nude and had been weighted down with chains and binding material and the cause of death appears to be ligature strangulation, with the time of death being estimated at 6-8 weeks prior to her body being found.
One month later, on July 9, 1982, the body of Julie Schossow was discovered also in the South Fork of the American River, approximately 150 yards from where Marilyn Putt's body had been discovered. She had a cord tightly wrapped around her neck two times and the coroner could not rule out the fact that she may have been bound together with Marilyn Putt. The cause of death appears to be ligature strangulation, with the time of death being estimated at 6-8 weeks prior to her body being found.
Given the discrepancy between the time the women went missing and the estimated time of death, it is believed that the women were held captive for approximately three months, believed to be somewhere in between South Lake Tahoe and Placerville.
Other events or potential leads
*Notably, another woman, Debney Lynn Lobanoff, 28, went missing not long before these women in December 1981. Her nude body was found floating in the Slab Creek Reservoir on July 3, 1982, in between the discoveries of Putt’s and Schossow’s bodies and approximately 7.5 miles upstream. According to her husband, Debney left with two “biker-type” men. This case also remains unsolved.
*In 2016, the El Dorado District Attorney’s Office launched a campaign to revive this cold case and made a specific request: “If there’s anyone out there that’s directly involved with or associated with the Church of Scientology in South Lake Tahoe, you may or may not know you have information that could be helpful, so please contact us.” The DA’s website further notes, “Although not a member herself, Marilyn Putt was closely associated with several leading members of the Church of Scientology.”
*In February this year, the El Dorado DA’s office announced they had used genetic genealogy databases to identify Joseph Holt, a local real estate worker, as the man who kidnapped and killed a woman, Brynn Rainey, in 1977 and a teenaged girl, Carol Andersen, in 1979. Rainey was last seen at a bar just before her 2 AM shift at a South Lake Tahoe Casino; her body was found in a shallow grave and her cause of death was believed to be strangulation or suffocation. Andersen disappeared on her way home from a party near a South Lake Tahoe ski resort. Her body was found dumped by the side of the road a few miles away; she had been bound and strangled. Unfortunately, justice evaded Holt as he died in 2014.
Questions
--How is it that the women weren’t reported missing for so many days? January 13, 1982, was a Wednesday—it seems, especially during ski season, that it’s unlikely that both of them would have had multiple consecutive days off of work and over a weekend, but it appears that no one (Harrah’s or the roommate) reported the women missing until Saturday or Sunday.
--The quotation from the anonymous neighbor is also odd—why would they be worried about retribution? Were these two men known to locals, but perhaps not to the women? Although they had both been there for some time, they were both transplants.
--Were they held captive for months, or is there another explanation for the discrepancy in between their date of disappearance and apparent times of death?
--Why is the DA currently inquiring about the Church of Scientology?
--Holt’s MO doesn’t sound dissimilar from the circumstances of Putt and Schossow’s case except that evidence is pointing towards two men. Could Holt have had or later taken on a partner? It’s interesting to note that he worked in real estate given it appears the women were held captive.
What do you think happened to Julie and Marilyn?

Sources
Julie Schossow & Marilyn Putt’s case info:
https://www.eldoradocoldcase.com/victim/index.html?NewsID=45648
https://blog.edcda.com/2016/07/07/1982-cold-case-homicide-revisited-marilyn-putt-and-julie-schossow/
Brief video by the El Dorado County Cold Case Task Force about the case:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pO5PxH6rFeE
Debney Lobanoff:
https://www.eldoradocoldcase.com/victim/index.html?NewsID=45649
https://newspaperarchive.com/placerville-mountain-democrat-apr-18-1984-p-16/
Joseph Holt case:
https://www.cbsnews.com/news/investigators-solve-1970s-cold-cases-with-emerging-dna-technique-today-2019-02-25/?fbclid=IwAR1CfHq6zwmNSTPPVpnnPp6D517L9zU3RG_RqvlakgaSL6tdWmxz161BzNI
https://www.kolotv.com/content/news/Two-decades-old-El-Dorado-County-cold-cases-solved-506390741.html
Other sources:
https://sacramento.cbslocal.com/2016/06/08/cold-case-murders-reopened-with-questions-for-church-of-scientology/
https://www.sacbee.com/news/local/crime/article88292277.html
https://www.tahoedailytribune.com/news/information-sought-in-1982-south-lake-tahoe-killings/
https://www.newspapers.com/image/?clipping_id=9776368&fcfToken=eyJhbGciOiJIUzI1NiIsInR5cCI6IkpXVCJ9.eyJmcmVlLXZpZXctaWQiOjE0OTY1OTIwNCwiaWF0IjoxNTYxNDc5MjI5LCJleHAiOjE1NjE1NjU2Mjl9.jK1hrxhcfwdV9JM0ox6wUKsOQObiUm7g1tniwDtNL3E
https://www.newspapers.com/clip/9556461/julie_schossow1/
submitted by readthinkfight to UnresolvedMysteries [link] [comments]

Trucker's Guide to When Every State is Reopening

Trucker's Guide to When Every State is Reopening
https://preview.redd.it/bdfdytwtwyv41.jpg?width=1024&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=8bd4da828ddd26e984087b93e4f604d823d1d18f
We understand business owners and drivers don’t have time to sort through all the different news coming out about COVID-19, so TopMark has made a detailed truckers guide to when each state will reopen. Updated regularly, this article will include the newest information on when each and every state plans on lifting or extending their stay at home orders.
The COVID-19 Pandemic has had a massive impact on trucker’s daily routines so we are are here to help out. Check out our COVID-19 Updates section for the latest information as it relates to the trucking industry.

ALABAMA

The current stay-at-home order will remain in effect until April 30.
Alabama Governor Ivey said the state needs to expand its testing before resuming normal economic activity despite being eager to get the state’s economy moving.

ALASKA

On April 24th, Alaska allowed businesses and restaurants to open back up in most parts of the state. These personal services and companies must do so under strict health and safety restrictions.
Bigger cities like Anchorage delayed their partial opening until April 27th.
Additionally, Governor Dunleavy has said citizens may visit their doctors and schedule elective surgeries on/after May 4th.

ARIZONA

Governor Ducey has announced the stay at home order will continue only until April 30th. The state also will allow elective surgeries to continue starting on May 1st.
On the other hand, Navajo Nation’s government will remain closed until May 17th.

ARKANSAS

While there is no exact date, Governor Hutchinson has plans to loosen the restrictions on businesses over the next few weeks. This means certain non-essential businesses will be allowed to operate.
Elective surgeries were allowed to continue on April 27th.

CALIFORNIA

CA Governor Gavin Newsome has not announced any official end to the stay at home order. Despite that, the state has allowed the scheduling of important surgeries like heart surgery or cancerous tumor removal.
The state is limiting the issuing of permits for events and activities for the foreseeable future. On April 13th, the Governor announced the Western States Pact with Oregon and Washington. This pact articulates that these 3 states will operate together in their reopening on when it is safe to do so. Nevada and Colorado have also joined this pact.

COLORADO

Colorado’s stay at home order has been replaced with a “safer at home” strategy that started on April 27th. While not mandatory, residents are heavily urged to stay at home as much as possible. High-risk populations have been asked to stay home at all times possible.
Special businesses that offer curbside pick up are now open. Additionally, personal training and dog grooming have been allowed to resume (if they follow social distancing practices). Elective medical procedures have also been allowed to continue.
Governor Polis states that more businesses will be allowed to open in the following weeks. On May 4th, non-essential office work will be allowed to continue. Colorado has also coordinated its re-opening plans with Nevada, California, Oregan, and Washington.

CONNECTICUT

The mandatory state shutdown will continue until May 20th. Governor Lamont has recommended a higher amount of COVID-19 testing before the state can start is opening plans.
Connecticut has joined with New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Deleware, and Massachusettes to coordinate the reopening of the Northeast.

DELAWARE

Deleware Governor Carney has extended the statewide stay at home order until May 15th or when the “public health threat is eliminated.” The state has said that opening can start upon seeing a 28 days decline of new COVID-19 cases.
Additionally, the state has joined up with the other states in the Northeast to ensure a safe re-opening and start to their economy. The governor also stated that even if the state reopens, social distancing, hand washing, face covering, and a limit on large gatherings will stay in effect.

FLORIDA

The stay at home order for Florida will continue until April 30th. Beaches of Florida are able to reopen if the local leaders have decided it is safe to do so. On the other hand, the Keys will not reopen to visitors or tourism until June or later.

GEORGIA

State restrictions were eased starting on April 24th. Businesses like tattoo shops, gyms, bowling alleys, barbers and hair salons, nail salons, and others have been allowed to re-open if they follow safe distancing rules.
Nightclubs and bars are still closed with no clear word on when reopening can continue.

HAWAII

Governor Ige has stated that the stay at home order will last through April 30th and potentially later. Bigger cities like Honolulu have their own independent stay at home order which extends through all of May.

IDAHO

The state of Idaho is currently allowing businesses to operate under certain conditions like curbside pickup, drive-thru/drive-in, or delivery. The state doesn’t have an explicit stay at home order but rather an “Order to Self Isolate” that ends on April 30th. There is no official word on when the full state will open.

ILLINOIS

Illinois Governor Pritzker has stated the stay at home order will extend to May 30th based on data they have analyzed in the last two months. Some modifications may be made in that time and restrictions lifted depending on testing and tracing initiatives.

INDIANA

Indiana’s current stay at home order ends on May 1st. Governor Holcomb has said that he is going to work with the state hospital association to determine when elective surgeries may continue.

IOWA

So far, Iowa has not given an official stay at home order. Governor Reynolds did issue a State of Public Health Disaster Emergency in mid-March. This required all nonessential businesses to close until April 30.
On April 27th, the government stated the 77 of Iowa’s 99 counties can begin reopening on May 1st. This includes gyms, restaurants, enclosed malls, and retail stores if they stay at 50% capacity. The remaining 22 counties have higher rates of COVID-19 and will have their closures extend until at least May 15th.

KANSAS

Kansas’ stay at home order is expected to end on May 3rd.
Governor Kelly has said that the state “nowhere near where we need to be with testing supplies,” which could mean the stay at order will be extended. Either way, the state plans to loosen restrictions in a gradual rollout rather than an all at once reopening.

KENTUCKY

Kentucky Governor Beshear has begun to reopen the health sectors of the state. On April 27, in person, office and ambulance visits were allowed to continue. Additionally, diagnostic, radiology and non-urgent visits are allowed.
The state plans to reopen the state in phases, with restrictions easing each week for a four week period. This reopening plan will begin on May 11th but could be pushed back depending on COVID circumstances.
Additionally, customers and employees will be asked to wear a mask while visiting/working in essential businesses.

LOUISIANA

Louisiana Governor Edwards has extended the stay at home order until May 15. Despite that, some restrictions have been lifted for nonessential businesses.
On May 1st, retail stores can open under the condition of offering curbside delivery only. Restaurants will also be allowed to offer seats to customers, but there will be no wait staff or table service. Customers are allowed to sit outside and eat at restaurants as long as the mind social distancing rules. Gov. Edwards has also required all workers that are interacting with the public to wear masks.
Despite the easing of restrictions, Edwards says the state is not near where it should be in regards to new cases, hospitalizations, and testing.

MAINE

Maine issued a “Stay Healthy at Home” executive order that lasts through at least April 30. Additionally, Governor Mills extended the state’s civil state of emergency until May 15.
The state of Maine has joined its neighbors New Hampshire and Vermont on planning their state’s reopening measures

MARYLAND

Maryland Governor Hogan outlined a three-stage reopening plan on April 24th. This will allow a gradual reopening of non-essential businesses, gatherings, and public services. Not giving a clear date, the governor stated that the easing of restrictions may begin in early May if COVID-19 hospital cases decline.
The first phase includes allowing certain small businesses to reopen, outdoor gym glasses, recreational activities to continue, and allowing religious gatherings of limited attendance. Certain medical procedures will be allowed to continue as well.
The second phase allows raising the minimum number of people allowed in a gathering, childcare services reopening, indoor gyms, the return of transit schedules, and bars and restaurants reopening under certain conditions.
The last phase allows larger social gatherings in places like religions services, entertainment venues, and dining establishments along with fewer restrictions on nursing homes and hospital visits.

MASSACHUSETTS

Currently, the state’s emergency order that requires all nonessential business to be closed ends on May 4th. Governor Baker has informed citizens that he and state officials have begun discussing the reopening of the state but there isn’t a clear plan yet.
Before reopening, the state says they need to have more testing, tracing, and quarantine procedures in place.
Massachusetts is actively working with its neighboring Northeastern states to develop a plan to reopen the economy.

MICHIGAN

Michigan’s stay at home order extends til at least May 15th. Currently, Governor Whitmer has eased restrictions of their COVID-19 response, allowing some businesses to open and outdoor activities to continue.
Most recently, the governor has allowed landscapers, nurseries, lawn service companies, and bike shops to re-open as long as they follow social distancing rules. Additionally, citizens are allowed to travel between houses and visit family members even though it isn’t encouraged.

MINNESOTA

Minnesota has allowed some businesses to open starting on April 27th. This order allows 80,000 to 100,000 office, industrial, and manufacturing workers to return to their jobs.
Governor Walz has stated that businesses must create and implement a COVID-19 readiness plan that outlines what measures they are taking to protect their worker’s health and safety.

MISSISSIPPI

Mississippi “safe at home” executive order will remain for two weeks and expire on the upcoming Monday. Right now, Governor Reeves urgers all citizens to stay home whenever possible. Any at-risk citizens are required to shelter in place.
State officials have also begun relaxing some restrictions on non-essential businesses if they offer curbside delivery, drive-thru, or other delivery options. Other nonessential businesses remained closed for now.

MISSOURI

Missouri’s stay at home order lasts until May 3rd. Governor Parson has stated that he is working with hospitals, health officials, and business leaders to develop the state’s reopening plan.
Businesses will be able to open as long as they keep up the six-feet social distancing rules. Additionally, any indoor retail business will be forced to limit its capacity to 25%. The governor has allowed local leaders to determine if their cities and towns need stricter rules.

MONTANA

Montana began reopening on April 26th, allowing individuals and businesses to have fewer restrictions. Retail and street businesses were able to open on April 27th if they follow social distancing practices and limit store capacity. Restaurants and bars can start offering some services after May 4th while businesses like gyms, theaters, and places of large assembly must remain closed.
The state’s travel quarantine will still remain, requiring non-work related out of state travelers to quarantine themselves for 14 days.

NEBRASKA

Nebraska state officials plan to relax some of their COVID restrictions on May 4th. Nebraska is one of the few states that issued no stay at home order for its citizens.
On May 4th, restaurants will be allowed to let customers inside as long as they operate under 50% of normal capacity. Businesses like salons, barbers, tattoo parlors, and massage centers are limited to 10 people in a store at a time. They are also required to wear face coverings or masks. Churches will also be allowed to continue worship as long as those attending stay 6 feet apart.
All other businesses like bars and theaters are required to stay closed until May 31st.

NEVADA

The current stay at home order is set to expire on April 30th but Governor Sisolak says the state is currently not ready to reopen.
Despite that, Mayors in cities like Las Vegas have been urging for the reopening of Casinos. Currently, there is no set reopening time or plan for casinos or other similar businesses in the state.

NEW HAMPSHIRE

New Hampshire’s stay at home order will remain until May 4th but could be extended depending on the circumstances. The current State of Emergency was extended to May 15th by Governor Sununu.

NEW JERSEY

As of now, there is no expiration date to New Jersey’s stay at home order that began on March 21st. Like many other states in the area, New Jersey has teamed up with its Northeastern neighbors like New York and Delaware to develop a plan on when to reopen their economies.

NEW MEXICO

Governor Grishman has extended New Mexico’s stay at home order until May 15th. After that period, there will be a gradual reopening of some businesses if conditions are safe to do so. The governor states that there is “no magical date” for when the state will be safe to reopen all businesses.

NEW YORK

One of the hardest-hit states, New York has some of the most detailed plans for COVID 19. Governor Cuomo’s “New York State on PAUSE” executive order was issued on March 22nd. There is no clear end date for New York’s restrictions, but as of now, nonessential businesses are required to stay closed until May 15th.
The state officials have stated the reopening is going to happen in phases once the state meets the federal guidelines that hospitalizations decline for 14 days. The first phase includes construction and manufacturing businesses to continue. The second phase would be implemented by a business-by-business analysis of risk. Governor Cuomo did state that each phase will have a 2 week period between to monitor the results.

NORTH CAROLINA

North Carolina’s current stay at home order for North Carolina is extended through May 8th.
Governor Cooper has stated the state could open in three phases if COVID-19 cases continue to decrease. Phase one would be that stay at home orders would remain, but some non-essential businesses will be able to open. Phase two includes the lifting of stay at home orders for those not at risk and the reopening of bars, restaurants, and churches under reduced capacity. Phase three would ease the restrictions for at-risk populations and allowed increased attendance at businesses and social gatherings.

NORTH DAKOTA

North Dakota has stated that many closed businesses may be allowed to open on May 1st. The state is another one of the few places with no explicit stay at home order and only shut down schools, gyms, restaurants, salons, and theaters.
Governor Burgum says that he is going to follow the federal guidelines in deciding to officially reopen the state.

OHIO

Governor Dewine’s stay at home order currently extends until May 1st. After that, the state will begin its first phases of reopening but do not have any specifics at this time. As of now, large events with big crowds are not expected to open anytime soon.

OKLAHOMA

Oklahoma began lifting restrictions on businesses as early as April 24th. The reopening plan is a three-phase operation that will progress when COVID-19 data tells state officials it is safe to do so.
Restaurants, theaters, gyms, and sporting events will be allowed to open after May 1st if they follow strict social distancing practices. On the other hand, bars will remain closed.

OREGON

Governor Brown issued an executive order requiring citizens to stay at home and will stay in effect until ended by her. There has been no official word on when the order will end but some restrictions on businesses will be lifted on May 1st.
This will allow hospitals, surgical centers, and medical and dental offices to resume nonemergency procedures as long as they follow safe COVID-19 distancing and sanitation practices.
State officials say more restrictions will not be eased until the state sees the following: a decrease in the growth of active COVID-19 cases, sufficient personal protective equipment available, large open capacity in hospitals, increased testing, tracing and isolating of new cases, and plans on how to protect at-risk communities.

PENNSYLVANIA

Pennsylvania is set to reopen the state in three phases that begin on May 8th.
The phases, broken down in red, yellow, and green, will be analyzed and remain in the interest of flattening the curve in the state. Recently, Governor Wolf announced that marinas, golf courses, guided fishing trips, and private campgrounds are allowed to reopen on May 1st under the condition that they follow social distancing protocols.
The state has joined with its northeastern neighbors to develop a plan on when it is safe to reopen their economies.

RHODE ISLAND

Rhode Island’s current stay at home order extends until May 8th and is actively working on new measures to open parks and beaches.
Governor Raimondo is actively working with neighboring states in the Northeast to develop a collective plan on how they should open their economies.

SOUTH CAROLINA

South Carolina allowed the reopening of some retail stores on April 20th. This included department stores, sporting goods stores, flea markets, businesses that sell books, furniture, music, flowers, clothing, and accessories. This was done under the condition that the businesses remained at 20% regular capacity or 5 people per 1000 square feet.
Governor McMaster’s State of Emergency has been extended until May 12th.

SOUTH DAKOTA

South Dakota never issued an official stay at home order. Governor Noem stated that despite that, the citizens of South Dakota were staying home at greater rates than states that had an active shelter in place order.

TENNESSEE

Governor Lee has allowed restaurants and retail outlets to open as long as they remain at 50% capacity. Additionally, some state parks have been allowed to return to business as usual. There is no official word on when other businesses will be able to reopen or have restrictions lifted.

TEXAS

Stay at Home orders for Texas currently extend till April 30th. Retail stores, restaurants, malls, theaters, museums, and libraries will be allowed to reopen on May 1st if they limit to 25% of their regular operating capacity.

UTAH

Utah’s “Stay Safe, Stay Home” directive extends until May 1st. Despite that, all schools will remain closed for the remainder of the year.
The state has not issued an official stay at home mandate, but citizens have been urged to stay at home as much as possible and restaurants are not allowed to have dining rooms operating. Utah is currently developing a plan for how and when further restrictions will be lifted.

VERMONT

Vermont has a similar “Stay Safe, Stay Home” order that extends until May 15th. Governor Scott has also developed a 5 point plan on how to open the state while fighting the COVID-19 outbreak. Phase one of the plan included allowing construction businesses, home appraisers, municipal clerks, and property managers to continue work on April 20th if they followed social distancing measures. Starting on May 1st, farmers' markets will be allowed to open as long as the social distancing guidelines are followed.

VIRGINIA

The state of Virginia’s stay at home order is effective until June 10th. Reopening the state will be done in a way that focuses on public health, says Governor Northam.
Limiting state restrictions will be done in phases outlined in the “Forward Virginia” blueprint. Steps include continued social distancing, limited public gatherings, the use of masks in public, etc. The state will begin reopening when data and health experts suggest it is safe to do so.

WASHINGTON

Stay at Home orders in Washington state currently last until May 4th. Additionally, most parks and recreational areas will be allowed to open on May 5th.
Washington has joined California, Oregan, Nevada, and Colorado in the Western States Pact to determine when it is safe to reopen their economies.

WEST VIRGINIA

Governor Justice has introduced the “Comeback Roadmap” as an outline of how the state will reopen going forward. The plan contains three phases that are broken up into weeks. Week one allows hospitals to start elective medical procedures and also allows the reopening of outpatient healthcare including primary care, dental, mental health, and more. Daycare centers will also be allowed to reopen.
Week two would allow businesses with less than 10 workers to go back to work. Restaurants with outdoor seating could resume service and church and funerals services could start again.
In the third phase, which is a three-week process, includes retail stores, gyms, hotels, spas, casinos, and other businesses to reopen. Additionally, offices and government businesses could return. Each of these phases would include the required temperature checks and mask-wearing.

WISCONSIN

Governor Evers’ stay at home order extends until May 26th. Restrictions were lifted on certain businesses like libraries, arts and crafts stores, and other places that provided materials needed to make face masks as long as they could provide curbside pickup. Golf courses have also opened around the state.

WYOMING

Another state without an official stay at home order, Wyoming did request a federal disaster declaration on April 9th. Currently, all out of state travelers are required to quarantine themselves for 14 days until April 30th.

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